The 20th Century O-Z: Dictionary of World Biography: 20th Century O-Z Vol 9
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Published 1. Maziar", in: Justice David Cheshin et al. II, ch. Birnhack ed.
Defining a Political Order in Time and Space. Stern eds. Stern and Alexander Yakobson eds. Jahrhundert, Hannover: WehrhahnVerlag, , Fania Oz-Salzberger and Yedidia Z. Boston: Academic Studies Press, , Kitromilides eds. Can Universal Lessons Be Drawn? Smelser and Paul B. Baltes Oxford: Elsevier Science, , vol.
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Oxford: Oxford University Press, , vol. English Historical ReviewCX , John Dwyer and Richard B. Sher eds.
English Historical Review. CXI , Peter Nitschke, StaatsraisonkontraUtopie. Joseph Mali ed. This is an academic murder plot involving a leading feminist theorist, an old-school philosophy professor, a bright undergraduate with a knack for David Hume, and a swimming pool attendant who speaks only Russian. Login Contact Us. News and Updates. Fania Oz-Salzberger.
Publications Ph. Attempting to produce the penultimate photographic image — the panorama — was his pursuit. It was his unusual style and method which attracted the attention of the Oceanic Steamship Company. He loved Sydney — certainly his imagery of the city confirms this as does his own words: 'my chief love in this country is Sydney.
I am very fond of it; its residents and — of its climate'. Sydney's coastal location is perhaps one of its biggest attractions. Zane Grey, another well-known American writer and keen deep-sea fisherman, headquartered at Watsons Bay for a period in January In , under contract to George Coppin,  actor and theatre entrepreneur, James Cassius Williamson, an American actor, began his Australian theatrical career. As a theatrical entrepreneur, Williamson staged one of his more spectacular shows at Sydney's Her Majesty's Theatre in February — the epic Ben Hur , complete with horses and chariots on stage.
Williamson gave many other American performers the opportunity to work in Sydney. Some toured, others stayed and made Australia their home. Maud Jeffries was one such star to perform on Melbourne and Sydney stages in the late s and early s, as part of a company tour staged for JC Williamson.
Her contribution to theatre in Sydney was acknowledged by an extravaganza staged to commemorate her 50 years of performing in Australia.
Popular to the end of her career, Maggie lived in Rose Bay before she returned to her Californian home in An earlier thespian arrival to Sydney's shores was Joseph Jefferson. Also under contract to George Coppin, Jefferson arrived in Sydney in Based mainly in Melbourne, Jefferson toured Victorian country towns but made a return visit to Sydney before sailing for London from Melbourne in American culture [media] was widely promoted on the world's stage, and Sydney was on the itinerary.
Sporting stars, including boxers, sprinters, golfers and even entire baseball teams, flexed their muscles and demonstrated their prowess. On 5 November , the Brooklyn Dodgers and the Cleveland Indians began their tour with a match in Sydney before leaving for the other capital cities. Sydneysiders were presented an opportunity to view this spectacle at the Royal Easter Show in April Other Americans who stayed in Australia placed their individual stamps on Sydney.
Dictionary of world biography
Continuing in the theatrical vein, Bob Dyer, a vaudevillian at heart and on the stage, arrived in the late s. With Dyer's repertoire of stunts and sketches and regular guest appearances at the Tivoli, he was soon destined to be a radio star. Dyer's radio quiz show 'Pick-a-Box' made an easy transition to television, and he hosted it, along with his wife Dolly, for 23 years. Gibson used local narrators for her American scripts and was an enthusiastic supporter of the Actors' Benevolent Fund.
Entrepreneur and promoter Lee Gordon was influential in bringing American entertainers to perform at the Sydney Stadium. Gordon, born in Detroit, Michigan, moved to Sydney in the early s. He was quick to grasp the fervour of the rock-n-roll era and began staging tours by singing legends such as Frank Sinatra, Frankie Laine, Johnnie Ray, and Bill Haley and the Comets. Basking in the glory of his 'Big Shows', Gordon expanded his entertainment interests in Sydney and established a Kings Cross discotheque 'The Birdcage', a drive-in restaurant and a striptease club.
He was a keen supporter of Australian talent, and Johnny O'Keefe and Col Joye were among those he featured in shows and later his recording label. Frank Sinatra's visit in was not as well received as his earlier tour arranged by Gordon. The crooner's off-the-cuff remark about Australian journalists caused him to hide away in his room at the Boulevard Hotel, Kings Cross. A quintessential Australian trade union storm gathered, hotel staff declined to serve him and airline workers joined in seeking an apology.
Controversy and contention appear to always have accompanied Americans in Sydney. This uneasiness with Americans and their character may be traced back to consul Williams and his seafaring renegades. Alfred Deakin expressed his concerns when he urged Australians not to feel the poorer 'cousin' of the two during his speech at the banquet in honour of the United States naval fleet in Walter Burley Griffin encountered that same 'anti-American' feeling during his Canberra planning period. Americans from all walks of life have played their part in Sydney's life story. The cartoonist Livingston Hopkins known as Hop was born in Bellefontaine, Ohio in , and migrated to Sydney in His lively work featured in the Bulletin from his arrival in Sydney until his retirement in , caricaturing many a Sydney politician, such as Sir George Dibbs and Sir Henry Parkes.
Upon her arrival, she took on the editorship of the Australian Women ' s Weekly which gave her the forum to air her feminist and socialist-leaning views. Coinciding with the rise of town planning and social reform, her editorial commentary focused on motherhood education, health and hygiene improvements, and equality for women. By opposing conscription in she lost her job but continued with her reform work alongside other prominent activists of the day, including Kate Dwyer and Vida Goldstein. Beginning his newspaper career as a copy boy, he soon was reporting news and eventually became news editor with the Daily Telegraph and Daily News Sydney.
Defending his right to editorial freedom, Clinch's association with Fairfax presses ended in the mids. An American architect won the international competition for the design of Australia's planned national capital in Walter Burley Griffin's inspiring and monumental designs for Canberra are evident today in the city that grew out of the limestone plains. His wife, Marion Mahoney Griffin, also an architect, was responsible for the dreamy, exquisite drawings which captured the imaginations of the judges and all who saw them.
Their work went beyond Canberra and touched both Melbourne and Sydney. In Sydney, the Griffins are synonymous with the Middle Harbour suburb of Castlecrag, where a residential estate was crafted to sit within the bush landscape. Though they only spent four years in Sydney, the Griffins left an indelible mark on the city, not only at Middle Harbour, but also in the presence of distinctive industrial incinerators.
Some of this he blamed on anti-American feeling which was prevalent at the time, especially after the outbreak of World War I in Frederick Augustus Bolles Peters came to Sydney as a visitor in and returned two years later to start several manufacturing businesses. Missing his American ice cream, Peters decided to bring this delicacy to Sydney and established a factory at Paddington in His company, Peters' American Delicacy later Peters' Ice Cream , branched out into new rooms and additional premises in Sydney eventually spreading interstate.
Clubs, associations and societies follow the business trail. The Sydney Rotary Club was formed in Sydney in This particular brand of club helped to promote business deals, social interaction and knowledge exchange among Americans as well as between Americans and Australians.
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American women in Sydney forged an auxiliary group in the late s and were instrumental in organising activities and providing a popular canteen for American troops on leave in Sydney during World War II. After several merges with other American women's interest organisations and societies over the years, the American Women of Sydney, as the group became known, merged with the American Society of Sydney. During her brief Sydney visit in September , Mrs Roosevelt praised the work of the volunteer women at the canteen. Apart from visiting the American forces in Australia and providing wartime encouragement from home, she also took time to visit the Australian women and girls working in munitions factories and other war-related industries.
During the Great Depression of the s, a standoff developed in relation to imports, exports and other trading issues which resulted in America taking Australia off its 'favoured nation' list. The only other country to be so classified at the time was Nazi Germany. The presence of American servicemen in Sydney was a marked feature of the war on the home front from They came for short periods of time to rest up before the inevitable return to the battlefront.
About a million servicemen and women disembarked from the ships in Sydney harbour, along with millions of tons of war goods. City and Kings Cross nightclubs were jammed with Americans. Luna Park on the northern foreshore of the harbour, was the scene for romance and engagement in old-fashioned fairground amusement. Intimate relationships blossomed, many culminating in marriages.
Thousands of Australian war brides made the trek across the Pacific to live with their servicemen husbands in the United States after the war. This prompted a formal migration program to entice United States veterans to a life in Australia. In the postwar years, Arthur Calwell, the Minister for Immigration, put out a call for 'one million Americans to immigrate'.
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From the late s the number of American migrants increased, reaching over 18, by Perhaps prompted by this success but also seeking American investment and business know-how, the New South Wales government opened a New York office on Fifth Avenue in Its brief was to 'attract new industries' to the state and to encourage American investment, but it also disseminated information on the benefits of living and working in New South Wales. The office operated for 25 years. At the same time, a different type of 'investment export' came to Australia.
American evangelism had previously arrived on Sydney's shores along with the trading ships, the gold rush diggers and businessmen. But this time, by invitation, an evangelical minister came to conquer. Thousands of Sydneysiders turned out to witness the Billy Graham crusade phenomenon, filling the Sydney Cricket Ground, the Showground and Randwick racecourse. Although Reverend Graham subsequently returned to Sydney, his charismatic crusade made the most impact on Australia's Christian churches. In a series of events and documentary programs were produced to mark the fiftieth anniversary of the success of Billy Graham's first Australian tour.
A much more practical example of religious exchange took place in the early days of the AIDS epidemic, when Pastor Jim Dykes arrived in Sydney in After his experiences in San Francisco, Pastor Dykes wanted to provide the type of support network which he helped to establish among that city's gay fraternity. Naming his centre Ankali from an Aboriginal word meaning 'friend' , he and his team provided counselling and a necessary serve of humanity to the growing numbers of AIDS victims and their families.
Australian and American military ties continued throughout the twentieth century. In the early s, the Australian government made a military commitment towards the American war in Vietnam , although this later became highly controversial. Askin's offensive retort of 'Ride over the bastards' only caused further backlash and anguish during this turbulent period.
The presence of President George W Bush at this meeting resulted in barricading Sydney streets for fear of a terrorist attack. Sydneysiders protested in force.
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Hundreds of thousands arrived between and Sydney was a far more cosmopolitan city with a larger and more diverse population than it had been in the s, and this contact again saw relationships develop, marriages follow, and another wave of official migration from the United States to Australia.
The Australian government aimed during the s to open up immigration spots for professional Americans, and to target skills considered desirable for Australian growth and progress.
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Financial enticements were provided to attract American teachers. Other skilled workers also made their way down under, now mostly on airplanes instead of ships, to find work in Sydney and beyond. Migrant hostels were established throughout New South Wales. Villawood was one of these hostels used between and where Americans, alongside British and European migrants, settled into life in the suburbs of Sydney.
The financial inducements for migrants usually included some tax-free status for short working periods, partial travel funding and an initial stay in a migrant hostel until the migrant and family were comfortably located in their own accommodation. The hostel arrangement included living quarters, a shop, recreational areas and meals. In return the migrant was expected to work for at least two years, at which time any financial benefit was considered repaid.
Naturalisation was then a possibility. Following the migration period of the s, studies examined why Americans migrated to Australia, what type of Americans they were, where they chose to reside and why they stayed, or returned to the United States. Some remained because they were disenchanted with the American way of life or had created a new life in Australia.
Americans who migrated were likely to be more radical than other Americans. Today's growth rate of American migrants is registered at 1 per cent by the Australian Bureau of Statistics, a small but steady figure. In the Census, 13, Americans were identified as Sydney residents and New South Wales has the largest distribution of Americans. The Centre was the initiative of the American Australian Association and its aim is to improve understanding within Australia of the depth and breadth of American life and culture.
Americans and Australians have been partners and allies for over two centuries now. Americans have been visitors, investors, entertainers, allies, residents and citizens with varying degrees of influence and notoriety.